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What's happening in PresUniv


Published: 09 May 2018

According to International Finance Corporation (IFC) data, approximately 95% Indonesian companies nowadays are family business. Therefore, according to the data, it is safe to say that the current companies are family business.

How the companies grow big?

In International Conference on Family Business & Entrepreneurship (ICFBE) 2017, founder of President University and Chairman of Jababeka Group, SD Darmono, stated that there are so many family businesses in Indonesia grow big because of KKN. Here, KKN is not Corruption, collusion, and Nepotism, but Connection, Communication, and Networking. Thus, there are many Indonesian companies grow big due to the connection acquired by the founders,  the ability to communicate, and the wide network they have built.

The second momentum that raised the family business was economic liberalization from the 1970s to the 1980s. "This marked with the legalization of various policies, such as Paket
Desember 1987, Paket Oktober 1988 and various other packages. The policy packages encourage the development of the capital market industry in Indonesia and make many family businesses experience extraordinary leaps," said Jony Haryanto, Rector of President University.

Jony elaborated it in the
ICFBE 2018 which took place in Patra Bali Resorts & Villas in Kuta, Bali, Wednesday (2/5). ICFBE is an annual seminar and international conference organized by President University in collaboration with Bisnis Indonesia. The event gathers businessmen with academicians. This year ICFBE 2018 lasted for two days, Wednesday and Thursday (2-3 May 2018) and attended by approximately 150 participants both from seven domestic and international universities.

According to Jony, capital market has a big role for family businesses in Indonesia because the capital market provides very cheap funds for business development. "I call it very cheap because just by swapping some of its shares, these companies get funds from the community without paying interest. Enough only with dividends. Compare if they have to borrow money from banks or other financial institutions. They have to pay the principal debt and interest rates," explained Jony.

However, there are not many family businesses in Indonesia utilize the capital market. According to Badan Pusat Statistik in 2016, from 26,7 million companies in Indonesia, 98,33% is the micro and small-scale business. Thus, only 450,000 are medium-large scale.

How many of them are public companies? Until April 30, 2018, there were 617 companies listed on the stock exchange. Only 0.14% of it. Still a few. "There are still many family companies facing the problem of transparency, information disclosure, and governance," said Jony.

In addition, now family companies are also facing new challenges, namely the development of technology, especially those related to digital technology, the Internet of Things (IoT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI). There are many stories about companies that are disrupted by this technology. Renowned hotel chains, such as Hilton, JW Marriott or InterContinental, for example, overwhelmed by Airbnb, the app company developed by Brian Chesky - a young man who in his time could not even afford accommodation fees.

In Indonesia, the business of taxi companies is cut by the presence of online transportation application companies such as Uber Taxi or GrabCar. Or, the leading retailers are forced to close some of their outlets as consumers, especially young people, prefer to shop online.

This is just the beginning. In the future, said Jony, more and more companies will be disrupted if they do not take anticipatory steps against technological developments. In recent years, there has been a lot of human work replaced by robots.

In banking, how many of the customers still go to the bank and deal with bank tellers? They prefer to use ATMs, mobile banking or internet banking. Some Indonesian construction companies are beginning to take anticipatory steps if their main job in construction is threatened by the presence of 3D printing technology. In the manufacturing or mining industry, some of the hazardous work has been taken over by robots.

 

 

 

 

Foxxconn, a factory in China which makes materials for iPhone or Xbox, has already laid off 60,000 workers and replaced them with robots. In 2014, the Associated Press began utilizing AI-based apps to write news. This app is capable of writing 1,000 articles per month, or 33 articles per day. Is there a journalist who can write this many articles? Later writers on future news portals are no longer journalists, but AI-based apps.

Hollywood has also developed Computer Generated Imagery (CGI) technology. With this technology, the old movie stars that have died can be "raised" visual figure
re-act. They will become competitors to newcomers.to

Jony summarized, disruption continues to happen, and difficult dammed. Who can withstand the pace of technological development? Moreover, the price of technology is cheaper, while on the other hand, the cost of labor is increasingly expensive. If this condition persists, at some point the role of the workforce will ultimately be completely replaced by technology. This kind of phenomenon is the middle and will continue to be faced by many family companies. And, put them on the intersection.


Menurut data International Finance Corporation (IFC), sekitar 95% korporasi di Indonesia adalah perusahaan keluarga. Jadi merujuk data itu, boleh dibilang perusahaan-perusahaan yang ada sekarang ini adalah perusahaan keluarga.

Bagaimana perusahaan-perusahaan itu tumbuh besar?

Pada ajang International Conference on Family Business & Entrepreneurship (ICFBE) tahun 2017, founder President University dan Chairman Grup Jababeka, SD Darmono, mengungkapkan bahwa banyak bisnis keluarga di Indonesia yang besar berkat KKN. Di sini KKN bukan Korupsi, Kolusi dan Nepotisme, melainkan Koneksi, Komunikasi dan Networking. Jadi, banyak perusahaan keluarga di Indonesia yang tumbuh dan besar berkat koneksi yang dimiliki oleh founder-nya, kemampuannya dalam berkomunikasi, dan luasnya jejaring yang mereka bangun.

 

Momentum kedua yang membesarkan bisnis perusahaan keluarga adalah liberalisasi ekonomi pada 1970-an hingga 1980-an. “Ini ditandai dengan dikeluarkannya berbagai paket kebijakan, seperti Paket Desember 1987, Paket Oktober 1988 dan berbagai paket lainnya. Paket-paket kebijakan itu mendorong berkembangnya industri pasar modal di Indonesia dan membuat banyak bisnis keluarga mengalami lompatan luar biasa,” papar Jony Haryanto, Rektor President University.

Jony memaparkannya pada ajang ICFBE 2018 yang berlangsung di Patra Bali Resorts & Villas di Kuta, Bali, Rabu (2/5). ICFBE merupakan ajang seminar dan konferensi internasional tahunan yang diselenggarakan bersama-sama oleh President University dan Harian Bisnis Indonesia. Ajang ini mempertemukan para pebisnis dengan kalangan akademisi. ICFBE 2018 kali ini berlangsung selama dua hari, Rabu dan Kamis (2 - 3 Mei 2018), dan dihadiri oleh sekitar 150 peserta baik dari tujuh perguruan tinggi dari Indonesia dan luar negeri.

Menurut Jony, pasar modal berperan besar bagi bisnis perusahaan-perusahaan keluarga di Indonesia. Sebab pasar modal menyediakan dana sangat murah untuk pengembangan usaha. “Saya sebut sangat murah sebab hanya dengan menukar sebagian sahamnya, perusahaan-perusahaan ini memperoleh dana dari masyarakat tanpa perlu membayar bunga. Cukup dengan dividen. Bandingkan jika mereka harus meminjam uang dari bank atau lembaga keuangan lainnya. Mereka harus membayar pokok utang dan suku bunganya,” urai Jony.         

Namun, sayangnya belum banyak perusahaan keluarga di Indonesia yang memanfaatkan pasar modal. Menurut Badan Pusat Statistik tahun 2016, dari 26,7 juta perusahaan di Indonesia, 98,33% adalah usaha skala mikro dan kecil. Jadi hanya 450.000 yang skala menengah-besar. 

Berapa di antara mereka yang menjadi perusahaan publik? Sampai 30 April 2018, tercatat ada 617 perusahaan di bursa efek. Jadi hanya 0,14%-nya. Sangat sedikit. “Masih banyak perusahaan keluarga yang menghadapi masalah transparansi, keterbukaan informasi dan tata kelola,” kata Jony.

Selain itu, kini perusahaan-perusahaan keluarga juga menghadapi tantangan baru, yakni perkembangan teknologi, terutama yang terkait dengan teknologi digital, Internet of Things (IoT) dan Artificial Intelligence (AI). Sudah banyak cerita mengenai perusahaan-perusahaan yang terdisrupsi oleh teknologi ini. Jaringan hotel ternama, seperti Hilton, JW Marriott atau InterContinental, misalnya kewalahan menghadapi Airbnb, perusahaan aplikasi yang dikembangkan Brian Chesky—seorang anak muda yang pada masanya bahkan tak mampu membayar uang kos.

Di Indonesia, bisnis perusahaan-perusahaan taksi terpangkas oleh hadirnya perusahaan aplikasi transportasi online semacam Uber Taxi atau GrabCar. Atau, perusahaan-perusahaan ritel terkemuka yang terpaksa menutup sebagian gerainya akibat konsumennya, terutama anak-anak muda, lebih suka berbelanja secara online.

Ini baru permulaan. Ke depan, kata Jony, kian banyak perusahaan yang bakal terdisrupsi jika mereka tidak melakukan langkah-langkah antisipasi terhadap perkembangan teknologi. Beberapa tahun belakangan ini saja sudah banyak pekerjaan manusia yang digantikan oleh robot.

Di perbankan, berapa banyak dari nasabah yang masih pergi ke bank dan berurusan dengan teller bank? Mereka lebih suka memakai ATM, mobile banking atau internet banking. Beberapa perusahaan konstruksi Indonesia mulai melakukan langkah-langkah antisipasi jika pekerjaan utama mereka dalam bidang konstruksi kelak terancam akibat hadirnya teknologi 3D printing. Di industri manufaktur atau pertambangan, beberapa pekerjaan yang tergolong berbahaya sudah diambil alih oleh robot.

Foxxconn, pabrik di China yang membuat material untuk iPhone atau Xbox, sudah mem-PHK 60.000 pekerjanya dan menggantinya dengan robot. Pada tahun 2014, Associated Press mulai memanfaatkan aplikasi berbasis AI untuk menulis berita. Aplikasi ini mampu menulis 1.000 artikel per bulan, atau 33 artikel per hari. Adakah wartawan yang sanggup menulis artikel sebanyak ini? Kelak penulis di portal-portal berita masa depan bukan lagi jurnalis, tapi aplikasi berbasis AI.

Hollywood juga telah mengembangkan teknologi Computer Generated Imagery (CGI). Dengan teknologi ini, bintang-bintang film lama  yang sudah meninggal bisa “dibangkitkan” sosok visualnya untuk kembali berakting. Mereka akan menjadi pesaing bagi para pendatang baru.

Simpul Jony, disrupsi semacam ini terus terjadi, dan sulit dibendung. Siapa bisa menahan laju perkembangan teknologi. Apalagi harga teknologi belakangan semakin murah, sementara di sisi lain biaya tenaga kerja kian mahal. Jika kondisi ini terus berlanjut, pada suatu titik peran tenaga kerja akhirnya benar-benar akan digantikan oleh teknologi. Fenomena semacam inilah yang tengah dan akan terus dihadapi oleh banyak perusahaan keluarga. Dan, menempatkan mereka pada simpang jalan.